Landscaping: What is the Basis

Nature gives us three fundamental natural components of the garden - land, water, plants. Under the earth is understood not only its quantity and quality, but also the nature of the landscape. Therefore, the relief is the basis of the landscape landscape. It is the shape of the relief that tells the designer what principles of landscape design to apply, how to build a composition and which style decision to choose.

Front door to the garden plot do it yourself

Begin designing your site only if you really “caught fire”. Theoretical knowledge matters little unless there is a great desire to translate their ideas

The relief is the most stable element of the garden landscape. From what it is, the remaining components will line up. Being engaged in the embodiment of landscape design on our site, we are dealing with a fragment of a natural landscape, into which we consciously introduce artificial changes.

We take a natural territory limited by a certain size, the appearance of which we form, taking into account the characteristic features of the relief, available landings, and soil quality. In gardens, which are located on a sloping terrain, large stones, boulders imitating a rocky surface are built into the slope. Curly perennials with a powerful root system are planted.

Fountain in the front area of ​​the garden

In landscape design, everything must correspond to each other so that a complete image emerges. Choose one basic idea and focus only on it

A cozy corner for a family holiday in front of an artificial pond

Build on the real needs of your family. Do not build antique columns like a neighbor if you do not need them

Thanks to these actions, the garden acquires an expressive artistic image and a wonderful appearance. In this case, it is clear that the designer found a successful combination of functionality and external beauty.

The embodiment of art in landscape design. The main elements

Each type of art has its own means of expressing creative intent. If this is painting, then the main means of finding an image is color; in sculpture, form. In landscape gardening art, where the basics of landscape design are applied, consisting in the joint creation of nature and man, the range of elements for creating an artistic image is more extensive. These elements are:

  • wildlife objects - trees and shrubs, flowers, ponds;
  • objects of artificial environment - small architectural forms (garden sculptures, paths, arches, arbors).

The mere presence of these elements on the site will not ensure the creation of an artistic image. In order to get a holistic, harmonious picture, everything must be done using the rules of landscape design and certain artistic ways of its embodiment are found.

Decorating the porch of a country house with stone and wood

Bet on natural materials to maximize your ownership of nature.

A place to relax in the garden in the middle of the English lawn

Design a place to relax first, and then fill the grounds with green spaces. So you get a comfortable structure, which later will also become a beautiful garden

The basic principles of landscape design

Before deciding on the layout and compositional aspects, you should familiarize yourself with the features of the territory.If your site has a complex shape, it’s possible to significantly simplify your work by using one approach - divide it into several simple zones. They can have a rectangular, semicircular, triangular or other shape.

Landscaped pavement garden paths

A garden looks better if it has several clear lines. For example, a path or alley with trimmed bushes

Blooming garden in front of the porch of an apartment building

The unity of style - if the house is decorated in rustic motifs, then the garden should correspond to it.

This approach helps to analyze the features of each of the zones of the territory and, having drawn conclusions, harmoniously compose the objects. All should be combined together adhering to certain design and artistic principles of landscape design.

Symmetry principle, together with the principle of rhythmic contrast. In this case, large and smaller garden objects alternate with each other in a geometric, strict design set by the designer. Creating a design, the designer is always looking for the “core” of the composition, its compositional center and “dominant points”. Based on this principle, for example, the following solution arises - the alley placed along the longitudinal axis of the rectangular section becomes the core. The center of the composition is a round arbor, with decorative elements. In the corners of the garden are four slender cypress trees. They will be the dominant points that close the composition.
Rhythm. A simple manifestation of rhythm is the linear planting of bushes and trees repeated at regular intervals. The ease, completeness of perception of the composition of the garden depends on the skillfully found rhythm and placement of accents. To make a drawing of the garden more interesting, you can use the construction of a rock garden, terraces, arbors, creating a dynamic pattern of paving paths.
Flowing forms. For those who are tired of the straightforward forms of urban buildings, when designing their site, use this principle. According to him, platforms, flower beds, paths, hedges have inherent soft outlines and curves characteristic of nature.
Nuance, contrast. These are manifestations of opposite form, principles. Acting on the principle of nuances, a smooth, subtle transition is ensured, from the forms created by the designer to the natural landscape. When using contrasts, the opposite is true. Differences in forms are emphasized, silhouettes and outlines are contrasted. In contrast to the nuance, contrast has its own expressive features.
Landscaped garden path

The smooth bend of the garden path leading to the linden alley

Making a mixborder on the lawn of a garden plot

Lush lawn mixborder mixborder

This is not all, but only the basic principles of landscape design. It is worth noting the principle of scale - the same architectural form will look different, depending on which garden is located. With the existing size of the site, measure the scale of the planned buildings, the height and shape of trees, shrubs and flower beds.

Deciduous and coniferous trees in the landscape of a summer cottage

Mixed planting of tall trees to protect the site from the wind

Dry creek in garden design

The center of the composition is a dry stream of stone

Narrow lawn ribbon and natural stone in a private garden

You can always add something new and interesting to the garden. The more different corners and original ideas, the better it looks.

How to issue an entrance zone

Conventionally, the site is divided into 3 zones:

  • front part (entrance area and front garden);
  • lateral;
  • back (includes the courtyard).
Green lawn in front of the front door of the house

Dividing the site into zones creates a sense of order and aristocracy, like rooms in a house

Path to the house made of natural stone

Entrance area should not be overloaded with unnecessary details

Entrance zone - the face of the house, which judges the taste of residents, their lifestyle. The main functions of this part of the garden is to create a decorative effect, protect the interior of the garden and the house from dust, noise coming from the street.

In this area, most often they place different functional structures: a carport, a road to the garage, transformer boxes, sewage wells, and other communication devices.With proper placement and necessity, these elements are decorated with hedges, trellis with climbing plants.

White wooden fence in the front area of ​​the site

A simple but very beautiful fence in front of the entrance to the garden

Do-it-yourself oriental garden in the front area

Elegant design of the front zone in oriental style

Thuja western in front of the main entrance to the country house

Coniferous plants at the entrance to the house are stable, do not require complicated care, they look solid at any time of the year

In the front part, it is customary to plant decorative shrubs, conifers. They are located in such a way that the plantings do not interfere with the penetration of sunlight into the windows of the house. Symmetrically planted spruce or fir can frame the entrance to the garden, and textured boulders will complement the composition.

It is also necessary to make sure that the entrance area is beautifully decorated at any time of the year. To do this, the front garden is broken with plants and flowers that complement each other in shades and flowering period. A hedge of boxwood will serve as an excellent framing of the walkway and garage entrance, paved with natural stone.

Outdoor Terrace with Polycarbonate Canopy

Lean on your inspiration, it’s the key to creating a truly stunning landscape

Plot with a slope. Turn disadvantage into dignity

Levels are often found inside the garden, but this is not a disadvantage. Masters of landscape design believe that the garden looks more attractive, the more diverse its relief. Designers will help to connect different levels with each other, change the existing terrain (remove or increase the slope), and form terraces.

Design sloping garden terrace

Terraces are a popular way to give an incline to a stepped view, but work as long as the incline is not too large.

When implementing the transformations, several important points should be taken into account:

  1. It is harmonious to enter natural transitions with created vertical and inclined lines of stairs, slopes, retaining walls.
  2. When forming contour lines, try to ensure such a slope of the surfaces, at which there will be no flushing of the fertile soil layers. It is important that the slope is sufficient, contributes to the removal of excess rainwater, to prevent it from collecting in puddles in the middle of the garden.
  3. To carry out earthwork - to create the foundation. You need to make a terrain plan, create the main layer for backfilling or excavation, dig up holes and ditches, form slopes, fill up or remove the earth.
Low retaining wall made of rubble stone in a summer cottage

For a retaining wall of stone with a height of about half a meter, a foundation is not needed, proper laying and fastening with a mortar is enough

Concrete and stone retaining wall in landscaping

Retaining wall a meter or more high requires a certain competence in the construction industry

Their appearance can affect the aesthetics of the garden. They are built where there are slopes, there are large differences in relief, and terraces of different levels have been created. Most often, retaining walls are erected between the terraces.

The material from which the supports are made is natural stone, precast concrete elements and brick, if the wall height is small. The choice of material is understandable, as it allows you to create interesting architectural compositions, strong and durable.

Slope garden design with stone retaining walls

Stone structures fit perfectly into the natural landscape and serve for many decades.

Landscaping wooden retaining wall

The wooden retaining wall is very interesting from a design point of view, but less durable even if hardwood is used

In addition to retaining walls, to fix the soil surface of the slopes, several methods are used: sowing grass, laying sod, planting bushes. Low retaining walls can replace garden benches. The erection of extremely high retaining walls should be avoided, due to a possible violation of the harmonious perception of the integrity of the landscape and to avoid additional costs.

Advice! It is better to replace a high wall with two, three lower. This will facilitate the transition between levels and will not introduce dissonance into the naturalness of the relief of the site.

DIY alpine slide made of stone

When choosing plantations, give preference to plants growing in natural conditions on slopes and stones

In landscape design, there are many principles and methods on how to properly design your site. One article is not able to reflect all the information. If you have a small site, to embody everything on it will be inappropriate. Choose a few rules that you will follow that are appropriate to your worldview, the amount of money and the time you can spend. This will be enough to create your oasis!

Wild slope in landscaping of a garden plot

Do you want to tinker with lawns, rockeries and alpine slides? Arrange a wild slope of stone and plants that prevent the soil from collapsing with its roots

Expert Opinion
Alina Kvileva
Landscape designer
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Hello, my name is Alina and I am a landscape designer, if you have any questions regarding landscape design, please answer them with pleasure.

Video: example of successful implementation of your own landscape project

Photo: landscape ideas for inspiration

Visitors Comments

Good day. Can you help? Plot 6 acres. Ivan tea and 60 young birches are growing. While there are no buildings

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